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Sumac Bran Raw Buy 'LINK'


Our finely milled sorghum bran is naturally gluten free and is an excellent source of dietary fiber and can be used in baked goods, sauces, shakes, or blended into seasonings. We understand that it can be difficult to incorporate enough dietary fiber into your diet as it is recommended that women should consume 25 grams of dietary fiber a day and that men should consume 38 grams a day until the age of 50. After 50, the recommended intake is 21 grams a day for women and 30 grams a day for men. Our high quality sorghum brans can help both consumers and producers incorporate additional dietary fiber into gluten free products.




sumac bran raw buy



Mimicking brown and artisan gluten free breads can be a challenge for chefs and product developers, however sorghum bran can be used within flour blends at levels as low as 5% to develop rich dark colors that can help differentiate your product in the gluten free marketplace. Our sorghum brans contain high levels of antioxidants, tannins and polyphenolic compounds which could have potential health benefits.


Shidfar F, Rahideh ST, Rajab A, et al. The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.)powder on serum glycemic status, ApoB, ApoA-I and total antioxidant capacity in Type 2 diabetic patients. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014;13(4):1249-1255.


Rahideh ST, Shidfar F, Khandozi N, Rajab A, Hosseini SP, Mirtaher SM. The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) powder on insulin resistance, malondialdehyde, high sensitive C-reactive protein and paraoxonase 1 activity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(10):933-938.


When dried and ground, sumac has a coarse, gritty texture. Ground sumac is great for adding acidity, brightness, and color to many dishes, including grilled meats and vegetables, grains, baked goods, and desserts.


Like many herbs and spices, sumac is a source of several antioxidants. These are compounds which help the body fight off free radicals which can cause oxidative stress and ultimately lead to cell damage.3


Conventionally, phenolic compounds in sorghum grain are mainly obtained through refluxing extraction, water extraction, maceration extraction, soxhlet extraction, and organic solvent extraction [3,12,17,19]. However, the extraction yield, content, and profile of phenolics in sorghum are varied between the different extraction solvents. For example, Devi et al. [23] reported that the acidified methanol extract of sorghum (red sorghum, collected in Tamil Nadu, India) bran polyphenols showed greater content of anthocyanins (4.7 mg/g) than methanol extract (1.95 mg/g) and acetone extract (1 mg/g). To the content of total flavonoids and phenolics of sorghum bran, acidified methanol extract was also higher than methanol extract and acetone extract.


Phenolic compounds from sorghum varieties have been reported to possess antioxidant activities, which are mainly characterized by scavenging the radicals of DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC in vitro [2,15,30]. For example, the ORAC value of phenolics isolated from black sorghum (Shawaya) bran was 3.7 mmol Trolox equivalents/mg (TE/mg) [31]. The IC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging activity of eight brown sorghum genotypes (SOR 01, SOR 03, SOR 08, SOR 11, SOR 17, SOR 21, SOR 24, SOR 33) varied from 91.2 to 361.2 mg/mL, and the IC50 value of ABTS radical scavenging activity ranged from 203.4 to 352.6 mg/mL [28]. Brown pericarp sorghum (IS131C) was found to possess greater antioxidant activity than black sorghum (Shawya Short Black 1), red sorghum (Mr-Buster, Cracka), and white sorghum (Liberty) when compared the antioxidant activity assayed by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP [15]. According to Xiong et al. (2021), varieties of IS31C and Shawya Short Black 1 showed higher values of ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP than varieties of Liberty, Mr-Buster, and Cracka [15].


In addition to the in vitro evaluation, the inhibitory effect of sorghum phenolic extracts on inflammation is also reported in vivo. Black sorghum bran phenolic extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect on an 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) induced mouse ear model [38]. In addition, golden gelatinous sorghum extracts inhibited the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, through a TPA induced mice ear edema model [36]. Ritchie et al. [40] studied the inhibitory effect of diets containing 6% dietary fiber from sorghum brans, including black bran (high levels of 3-DXA), Sumac bran (high levels of condensed tannins and low levels of 3-DXA), and a combination of high-tannin bran and black bran on colon inflammation. Diets containing sorghum bran upregulated the colonocyte proliferation and gene expression of trefoil factor (Tff3), and transformed growth factor beta (Tgfb) after the inflammation induced by DSS [40]. Tff3 and Tgfb are known to repair lesions and maintain epithelial barrier integrity, which are both involved in cellular migration and suppression of apoptosis. The effect of extruded sorghum flour on inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed rats was studied by de Sousa et al. [41]. A diet containing extruded sorghum flour increased the total antioxidant capacity of serum plasma and SOD level, but reduced the concentrations of p65 through NF-κB in liver and lipids peroxidation [41]. The anti-inflammatory effect of sorghum phenolic extracts is summarized in Table 3.


In addition to the sorghum bran, sorghum stalk phenolic extract has also been shown to have an inhibitory effect against colon cancer proliferation in vitro. Massey et al. [53] isolated the phenolics from the pith and dermal layer of sweet sorghum (i.e., Dale and M81E) stalk, and found that the dermal layer contained more content of phenolics than the pith for both varieties, especially the content of 3-DXA apigeninidin and luteolinidin. Phenolic extracts from the dermal layer of sorghum varieties Dale and M81E showed higher antioxidant activity than the pith assayed by ABTS [53]. The extract of dermal layer of sweet sorghum Dale inhibited the growth of colon cancer HCT116 cells and colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs), through modulating the gene p53 above 35 mg of gallic acid equivalent/mL [53].


In addition, polyphenolics and anthocyanins have been reported to inhibit the starch digestive enzymes, such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase, thus retarding starch digestibility and lowering the value of glucose index (GI), which is also considered to possess the anti-diabetic effect [28,47]. The IC50 values of the inhibitory effect of proanthocyanidins from Sumac sorghum and black sorghum bran phenolic extracts on α-amylase were reported to be 1.4 and 11.4 mg/mL, respectively [51]. The effect of red sorghum phenolic extract on pancreatic lipase inhibition, α-amylase activity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was studied by Irondi et al. [61], and they found that IC50 values were 12.72 1.13, 16.93 1.08, and 10.78 0.63 mg/mL, respectively. IC50 values of brown sorghum genotypes (SOR 01, SOR 03, SOR 08, SOR 11, SOR 17, SOR 21, SOR 24, SOR 33) on α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition were reported to be 14.7 to 61.0 mg/mL and 10.6 to 852.6 mg/mL, respectively [28]. The anti-diabetic effect of sorghum phenolic extracts is summarized in Table 5.


Sumac (/ˈsuːmæk/ or /ˈʃuːmæk/), also spelled sumach,[a] is any of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera in the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, including East Asia, Africa, and North America.[4][5] Sumac is used as a spice, as a dye, and in medicine.


The word sumac traces its etymology from Old French sumac (13th century), from Mediaeval Latin sumach, from Arabic summāq (سماق), from Syriac summāqa (ܣܘܡܩܐ)- meaning "red".[9] The generic name Rhus derives from Ancient Greek ῥοῦς (rhous), meaning "sumac", of unknown etymology; the suggestion that it is connected with the verb ῥέω (rheō), "to flow", is now rejected by scholars.[10][11][12]


Species including the fragrant sumac (R. aromatica), the littleleaf sumac (R. microphylla), the smooth sumac (R. glabra), and the staghorn sumac (R. typhina) are grown for ornament, either as the wild types or as cultivars.[13][14][15][16]


The dried fruits of some species are ground to produce a tangy, crimson spice popular in many countries.[17][18] Fruits are also used to make a traditional "pink lemonade" beverage by steeping them in water, straining to remove the hairs that may irritate the mouth or throat, sometimes adding sweeteners such as honey or sugar. Most Rhus species contain only trace amounts of vitamin C and none should be considered a dietary source of this nutrient. In comparative research, the fruits of Rhus coriaria were found to contain the highest levels of ascorbic acid at approximately 39 mg/kg. (It therefore takes three pounds (1.36 kg) or more of sumac fruits to match the vitamin C content of a single average lemon, at over 50 mg.) Sumac's tart flavor comes from high amounts of malic acid.[19]


The fruits (drupes) of Rhus coriaria are ground into a reddish-purple powder used as a spice in Middle Eastern cuisine to add a tart, lemony taste to salads or meat.[17] In Arab cuisine, it is used as a garnish on meze dishes such as hummus and tashi, it is also commonly added to falafel. Syria uses the spice also, it is one of the main ingredients of Kubah Sumakieh in Aleppo of Syria, it is added to salads in the Levant, as well as being one of the main ingredients in the Palestinian dish musakhan. In Afghan, Armenian, Bangladeshi, Iraqi, Indian, Iranian, Mizrahi, and Pakistani cuisines, sumac is added to rice or kebab. In Armenian, Azerbaijani, Central Asian, Syrian, Iraqi, Jordanian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Turkish cuisine and Kurdish, it is added to salads, kebab and lahmajoun. Rhus coriaria is used in the spice mixture za'atar.[20][21] 041b061a72


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