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Download Ordinary Level Physics PDF for Free and Learn Physics Effectively


- Who is A.F. Abbott and why is his book important? - What are the main topics covered in the book? H2: Mechanics and General Physics - Measurements - Force, weight and motion - Newton's laws of motion - Work, energy and power - Density and pressure - Archimedes' principle and buoyancy H2: Internal Energy and Heat - Temperature and heat - Expansion of solids and liquids - The gas laws - Transmission of heat - Specific heat capacity and latent heat - Vapours H2: Optics - Light rays and reflection of light - Spherical mirrors - Refraction at plane surfaces - Lenses and optical instruments - Dispersion and colour - Transverse waves and light H2: Sound - Longitudinal waves and sound - Musical sounds - Strings and pipes H2: Electricity and Magnetism - Magnetism - Electrostatics - Potential and capacitance - Electric cells and batteries - Current, electromotive force and resistance - Magnetic effect of an electric current - Electromagnetic induction - Electrolysis - The principle of the electric motor - Galvanometers, ammeters and voltmeters - Measurement of resistance and potential difference - Electric circuits, energy and power - Electrical calorimetry - Electronics H1: Conclusion - Summary of the main points of the article - Benefits of reading the book for students and teachers of physics H1: FAQs - Where can I download the pdf version of the book? - What are the prerequisites for reading the book? - How can I test my understanding of the concepts in the book? - What are some other books that are similar to this one? - How can I contact the author or the publisher of the book? # Article with HTML formatting Introduction


Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter, energy, forces, motion, heat, light, sound, electricity, magnetism and other natural phenomena. Physics helps us to understand how the world works and how we can use its principles to improve our lives. Physics is also a fascinating subject that challenges our imagination and creativity.




Ordinarylevelphysicsafabbottpdf


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One of the books that can help students and teachers of physics to learn and teach this subject effectively is "Ordinary Level Physics" by A.F. Abbott. This book was first published in 1963 by Heinemann Educational Books and has been revised several times since then. It covers all the topics that are required for ordinary level physics examinations in various countries, such as England, Wales, Ireland, Singapore, Malaysia, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana and others.


The book is written in a clear and concise style that makes it easy to follow and understand. It provides excellent diagrams, examples, exercises, questions and answers that illustrate and reinforce the concepts explained in each chapter. It also includes practical experiments that demonstrate how physics can be applied in real life situations. The book is divided into five main sections: Mechanics and General Physics, Internal Energy and Heat, Optics, Sound, and Electricity and Magnetism. Each section contains several chapters that cover specific topics within that area of physics.


Mechanics and General Physics


This section covers the basics of mechanics and general physics, such as measurements, force, weight, motion, Newton's laws of motion, work, energy, power, density, pressure, Archimedes' principle and buoyancy. Some of the key points in this section are:


  • Measurements are essential for physics, as they allow us to quantify and compare physical quantities, such as length, mass, time, temperature, etc. Measurements are made using standard units, such as the metre, kilogram, second, degree Celsius, etc. Measurements are also subject to errors and uncertainties, which can be estimated and reduced by using appropriate instruments and methods.



  • Force is a push or a pull that acts on an object and causes it to change its state of rest or motion. Force is measured in newtons (N) and can be represented by arrows or vectors. Weight is the force of gravity that acts on an object and depends on its mass and the gravitational field strength. Motion is the change of position of an object with respect to time and can be described by quantities such as speed, velocity, acceleration, displacement, distance, etc.



  • Newton's laws of motion are three fundamental laws that describe how forces affect the motion of objects. The first law states that an object at rest or in uniform motion will remain so unless acted upon by a net force. The second law states that the net force acting on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration. The third law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.



  • Work is done when a force causes a displacement of an object in the direction of the force. Work is measured in joules (J) and is equal to the product of the force and the displacement. Energy is the capacity to do work and can exist in various forms, such as kinetic energy, potential energy, heat energy, light energy, etc. Energy can be transferred from one form to another or from one object to another by doing work or by heating. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total energy of a system remains constant unless external work is done on or by the system.



  • Power is the rate of doing work or transferring energy and is measured in watts (W). Power is equal to the work done or energy transferred divided by the time taken. Power can also be calculated by multiplying the force and the velocity of an object.



  • Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance and is measured in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m). Density can be used to compare the compactness or heaviness of different substances. Pressure is the force per unit area acting on a surface and is measured in pascals (Pa). Pressure can be caused by liquids or gases exerting forces on the walls of their containers or on objects immersed in them.



  • Archimedes' principle states that when an object is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upthrust or buoyant force that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. This principle explains why some objects float or sink in fluids and how ships, balloons and submarines work.



Internal Energy and Heat


This section covers the topics related to internal energy and heat, such as temperature and heat, expansion of solids and liquids, the gas laws, transmission of heat, specific heat capacity and latent heat, vapours. Some of the key points in this section are:


  • Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold an object is and is measured in degrees Celsius (C) or kelvins (K). Temperature indicates the average kinetic energy of the molecules or atoms that make up an object. Heat is a form of energy that flows from a hotter object to a colder object due to their temperature difference. Heat is measured in joules (J) or calories (cal).



  • Expansion of solids and liquids occurs when they are heated and their molecules or atoms vibrate more vigorously and move further apart from each other. Expansion causes an increase in the length, area or volume of a substance. Expansion can be measured by using devices such as thermometers, bimetallic strips, mercury-in-glass thermometers, etc.



  • The gas laws describe how the pressure, volume and temperature of a gas are related to each other and to the number of moles or particles of gas present. The gas laws include Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay-Lussac's law, Avogadro's law and the ideal gas equation. The gas laws can be used to explain various phenomena involving gases, such as balloons, air pumps, pressure cookers, etc.



Optics


This section covers the topics related to optics, such as light rays and reflection of light, spherical mirrors, refraction at plane surfaces, lenses and optical instruments, dispersion and colour, transverse waves and light. Some of the key points in this section are:


  • Light rays are straight lines that represent the direction of propagation of light. Reflection of light is the bouncing back of light when it hits a surface. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal are all in the same plane. Reflection can occur from smooth surfaces (specular reflection) or rough surfaces (diffuse reflection).



  • Spherical mirrors are mirrors that have a curved surface that is part of a sphere. Spherical mirrors can be concave (curved inwards) or convex (curved outwards). Spherical mirrors form images of objects by reflecting light rays. The image formed by a spherical mirror can be real or virtual, inverted or upright, magnified or diminished, depending on the position of the object and the focal length of the mirror. The focal length of a spherical mirror is half its radius of curvature. The relationship between the object distance, the image distance and the focal length of a spherical mirror is given by the mirror formula: 1/u + 1/v = 1/f, where u is the object distance, v is the image distance and f is the focal length.



  • Refraction of light is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another with a different optical density. The angle of refraction depends on the angle of incidence and the refractive index of the two media. The refractive index of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. Snell's law states that for two media with refractive indices n1 and n2, n1 sin i = n2 sin r, where i is the angle of incidence and r is the angle of refraction. Refraction can cause phenomena such as apparent depth, lateral displacement, total internal reflection and critical angle.



  • Lenses are transparent objects that have curved surfaces that refract light rays. Lenses can be converging (thicker in the middle) or diverging (thinner in the middle). Lenses form images of objects by refracting light rays. The image formed by a lens can be real or virtual, inverted or upright, magnified or diminished, depending on the position of the object and the focal length of the lens. The focal length of a lens is the distance from the lens to its principal focus, where parallel rays are brought to a point (for converging lenses) or appear to diverge from (for diverging lenses). The relationship between the object distance, the image distance and the focal length of a lens is given by the lens formula: 1/u + 1/v = 1/f, where u is the object distance, v is the image distance and f is the focal length.



  • Optical instruments are devices that use lenses or mirrors to form images of objects for various purposes, such as magnification, projection, measurement, etc. Some examples of optical instruments are microscopes, telescopes, cameras, projectors, periscopes, etc.



  • Dispersion of light is the splitting of white light into its component colours when it passes through a prism or a raindrop. Dispersion occurs because different colours of light have different wavelengths and therefore different speeds and refractive indices in a medium. The colours of white light are arranged in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing refractive index as: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). Dispersion can explain phenomena such as rainbows, spectra and colour filters.



  • Transverse waves are waves that have their particles vibrating perpendicular to their direction of propagation. Light is an example of a transverse wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Light can be characterized by its wavelength (the distance between two successive crests or troughs), frequency (the number of crests or troughs that pass a point per second), amplitude (the maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position) and speed (the distance travelled by a wave per second). The speed of light in vacuum is approximately 3 x 10 m/s and is constant for all colours of light. The relationship between the wavelength, frequency and speed of light is given by: c = fλ, where c is the speed of light, f is the frequency and λ is the wavelength.



Sound


This section covers the topics related to sound, such as longitudinal waves and sound, musical sounds, strings and pipes. Some of the key points in this section are:


  • Longitudinal waves are waves that have their particles vibrating parallel to their direction of propagation. Sound is an example of a longitudinal wave that consists of compressions and rarefactions of air or other medium. Sound can be characterized by its wavelength (the distance between two successive compressions or rarefactions), frequency (the number of compressions or rarefactions that pass a point per second), amplitude (the maximum change in pressure or density of a medium) and speed (the distance travelled by a wave per second). The speed of sound in air is approximately 340 m/s and depends on the temperature and pressure of the air. The relationship between the wavelength, frequency and speed of sound is given by: v = fλ, where v is the speed of sound, f is the frequency and λ is the wavelength.



  • Musical sounds are sounds that have a regular pattern of vibrations and can be distinguished by their pitch, loudness and quality. Pitch is the perception of how high or low a sound is and depends on its frequency. Higher frequency sounds have higher pitch and lower frequency sounds have lower pitch. Loudness is the perception of how loud or soft a sound is and depends on its amplitude. Higher amplitude sounds have higher loudness and lower amplitude sounds have lower loudness. Quality is the perception of how pure or complex a sound is and depends on its waveform or shape. A pure sound has a simple waveform, such as a sine wave, and a complex sound has a complicated waveform, such as a square wave or a sawtooth wave. A complex sound can be analysed into its component pure sounds or harmonics by using a device called an oscilloscope.



  • the shape, the larger the end correction and the longer the effective length and the lower the frequency or pitch. The end conditions of a pipe determine whether it is open or closed at one or both ends. An open end allows air molecules to escape and produces an antinode (a point of maximum displacement) of the sound wave. A closed end prevents air molecules from escaping and produces a node (a point of minimum displacement) of the sound wave. The number and position of nodes and antinodes in a pipe determine its mode of vibration and its harmonic series. The harmonic series is the set of frequencies or pitches that a pipe can produce by vibrating in different modes. The lowest frequency or pitch in the harmonic series is called the fundamental frequency or the first harmonic. The other frequencies or pitches are multiples of the fundamental frequency and are called the higher harmonics or overtones.



Electricity and Magnetism


This section covers the topics related to electricity and magnetism, such as magnetism, electrostatics, potential and capacitance, electric cells and batteries, current, electromotive force and resistance, magnetic effect of an electric current, electromagnetic induction, electrolysis, the principle of the electric motor, galvanometers, ammeters and voltmeters, measurement of resistance and potential difference, electric circuits, energy and power, electrical calorimetry, electronics. Some of the key points in this section are:


  • Magnetism is the property of certain materials that attract or repel other materials due to their magnetic fields. A magnetic field is a region around a magnet where a magnetic force can be felt by another magnet or a magnetic material. A magnetic field can be represented by magnetic field lines that show the direction and strength of the field. The closer the field lines are to each other, the stronger the field is. The direction of the field lines is from the north pole to the south pole of a magnet. A magnet can be natural or artificial, permanent or temporary. A natural magnet is a mineral that has magnetic properties, such as magnetite or lodestone. An artificial magnet is a material that has been magnetized by another magnet or by an electric current. A permanent magnet is a material that retains its magnetism for a long time, such as steel or iron. A temporary magnet is a material that loses its magnetism quickly when removed from a magnetic field, such as soft iron or paper clips.



  • Electrostatics is the study of electric charges at rest and their effects on other charges and materials. An electric charge is a property of matter that causes it to experience an electric force when placed in an electric field. An electric field is a region around a charge where an electric force can be felt by another charge. An electric field can be represented by electric field lines that show the direction and strength of the field. The closer the field lines are to each other, the stronger the field is. The direction of the field lines is from positive charges to negative charges. Electric charges can be positive or negative and are measured in coulombs (C). Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. Electric charges can be transferred from one object to another by contact (conduction), induction or friction (triboelectricity). Electric charges can also be stored in devices called capacitors that consist of two conductors separated by an insulator.



  • the conductors and the type of insulator in a capacitor.



  • Electric cells and batteries are devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy by producing a steady current of electrons. An electric cell consists of two electrodes (metal plates or rods) immersed in an electrolyte (a solution that conducts electricity). A battery consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel. The electrodes have different chemical potentials and react with the electrolyte to produce a potential difference or voltage between them. The electrode with higher potential is called the positive terminal and the electrode with lower potential is called the negative terminal. The current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal through an external circuit that connects them. The current stops flowing when the electrodes are fully reacted or when the circuit is broken. Electric cells and batteries can be primary or secondary. A primary cell or battery is one that cannot be recharged and must be replaced when it is exhausted, such as a dry cell or a zinc-carbon cell. A secondary cell or battery is one that can be recharged by reversing the chemical reaction, such as a lead-acid cell or a nickel-cadmium cell.



Current, electromotive force and resistance are three concepts related to electricity that describe how electric charges move and interact in a circuit. Current is the rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit and is measured in amperes (A) or coulombs per second (C/s). Current can be direct (DC) or alternating (AC). A direct current flows in one direction only, such as from a battery or a solar cell. An alternating current changes direction periodically, such as from a generator or a mains supply. Electromotive force (emf) is the amount of work done per unit charge by a source of ele


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